Category Archives: Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury – TBI and Spinal Cord Injury SCI

The VA says this about TBI and SCI: 

Due to the ongoing conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) accounts for almost 25% of combat casualties.

Improvised explosive devices, blast (high pressure waves), landmines, and explosive fragments account for the majority of combat injuries in Afghanistan and Iraq. Although Kevlar helmets and advances in body armor have saved the lives of many soldiers, they do not protect against blasts and impacts to the head, face and cervical spinal cord.

Blast injuries often result in multiple traumas, including injuries to internal organs, limb loss, sensory loss, and psychological disorders. The term “polytrauma” has been coined to describe the co-occurring injuries.

The information above and below come from here which are part of an introduction and overview prepared by Joel Kupersmith, MD, Chief Research and Development Officer, VA for the purposes of a proposal solicitation.  I thought the overview might be of interest to those with these injuries and their families.

Traumatic Brain Injury:

Kevlar helmets have done much to protect the head but leave the forehead unprotected. The left and right frontal lobes, located behind the forehead control intellectual abilities such as the ability to plan and organize. This area of the brain also controls personality, behavior, and emotional control.

Concussion or mild TBI is the most common form of combat-related injury. Mild TBI can occur even in those not directly hit by the blast, without obvious external injuries, without loss of consciousness and without visible findings from acute Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Problems with memory, lack of concentration, increased anxiety and irritability are common hallmarks of mild TBI. Although evidence suggests that the majority of OIF/OEF soldiers who suffer mild TBI will recover over time, early diagnoses and treatment are critical so that aberrant behaviors due to TBI are not misinterpreted and soldiers are spared the risk of second impact syndrome. Appropriate recognition of TBI will facilitate quick return to pre-injury activity levels, including return to duty status.

In addition to mild TBI, soldiers close to the blasts are experiencing severe diffuse and contrecoup injuries. Soldiers with a moderate to severe TBI often show the similar symptoms as mild TBI yet also report: worsening headaches; repeated vomiting or nausea; seizures; inability to awaken from sleep; slurred speech; weakness, numbness and loss of coordination. Unlike mild TBI, these problems and others can persist long-term or result in permanent difficulties with memory, reasoning, emotion and expression making it impossible to return to duty, hold steady employment or regain pre-injury quality of life.

Penetrating focal injuries from mortar rounds or other forms of heavy artillery resulting in severe brain injury are not as prevalent. However, focal destruction of brain tissue is the most life-threatening, intractable type of brain injury causing permanent damage to the affected area and the functions it controls.

Spinal Cord Injury:

Current designs in military protective gear and advanced evacuation procedures have resulted in both a decrease in the percentage of spinal cord injured soldiers and an increase in the number of those that ultimately survive. Blast force and shrapnel injuries are most common. For those that survive, the cervical spinal cord, the unprotected and most mobile portion of the spinal cord, is the most common site of injury.

Soldiers with cervical SCI face short- and long-term consequences of losing motor and sensory function below the level of injury, coupled with a loss of autonomic regulation. Every organ system may be affected by cervical spinal cord injury. Alterations in the gastrointestinal, renal, skin and musculoskeletal organs are common, and respiratory problems are the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, patients may experience chronic pain at or below the level of injury and, less frequently, above it.

Alterations in respiratory mechanics, and the development of alveolar hypoventilation, pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary edema, and sleep apnea are a few of the common respiratory complications associated with cervical SCI. Ultimately, dysfunction depends on the level and extent of injury. Lesions above C3 paralyze all respiratory muscles. When SCI involves C3 to C5 lesions, profound respiratory muscle dysfunction occurs leaving the patient unable to generate a cough or clear secretions. Because of this, neuroprotective strategies that rescue even one or two segments may be of significant functional benefit to veterans with SCI.

Let’s pray that this proposal results in research that leads to significant help for our injured veterans.    

Oldtimer

Wounded warriors battle with VA – Story and Videos

Wounded Warriors Battle With VA

I watched a horrifying story on CNN last night.  I missed it on regular programming, checked the programming guide and waited for the midnight repeat.   The CNN title of the story was:

Broken Government: Waging War on the VA

It repeats tonight, Sunday night (Nov 18) at 8 Eastern, so if you get a chance, please check your schedule.   It is a powerful indictment of the VA’s handling of disability claims.  It is the story of 3 wounded veterans trying to get justice and only able to do it by virtually going to war again to fight for their rights.

One of the wounded warriors and a really heartbreaking story was Ty Ziegel, 25 years old who had been severely injured by a suicide bomber, “sent back to the states to die”, but lived.  Despite losing nearly half of his skull and a large portion of his brain, penetrating shrapnel and bone fragments in his brain, with both ears, nose and lips burned off and impossible to replace,  loss of an eye and resulting enormous disfiguration, the VA listed him as having “10% head trauma”.  10% head trauma.  In addition the damage to the left lobe of his brain,  loss of an eye and jaw fracture as haveing 0% trauma.  0% for loss of 1/4 of his brain, loss of an eye? He also lost one arm at the elbow, and two fingers and a thumb from his other hand, plus numerous other injuries for which the bulk of his small disability payment was granted.    Far below the poverty line disability for a man disfigured and totally disabled.

Ty Ziegel before and after

Ty Ziegel, before and after.   CNN News photo

(Click on the picture or here to see the video).  These videos are short promo clips about 2 minutes long and I don’t know how long they will keep them up on their site.  Go to  CNN and see the real thing.  Click here for part 2

Another veteran, Garrett Anderson received a roadside bomb injury that sent shrapanel into his head and body, and he lost an arm while driving a truck in a convoy.  The VA initially rejected his claim, saying that it was “not service connected”.   He was also suffering from what he thought was PTSD.  In Garrett’s case the letter stating that there were “shrapnel wounds all over his body, not service connected” had the signature cut out of the letter with a knife.  Apparently the signer was not proud of his decision and knew it was wrong.  

Garrett Anderson

Garrett Anderson.  Click on the picture or here for the video clip.

In Ziegel’s case, within 48 hours of taping an interview with CNN, the VA changed his disability to 100%.  In Anderson’s case, his wife took a sneak peak at his case file while a nurse was out of he room and she discovered they had  him listed in their files a suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), but had failed to tell him or give him any disability credit for it.   He went to Sen. Dick Durbin of Illinois who turned up the pressure on the VA and subsequently has been awarded disability for TBI.

The third story was about Tammy Duckworth who lost both legs and had severe injuries to one arm and her body.   She later ran for Congress with the hope of improving things for disabled veterans.  She lost but has been appointed by the Governor of Illinois to be the Director of the IL Department of Veterans’ Affairs.

Click here for the CNN news promo clip for her story.  Go to the link with Tammy’s name above and click on “veteran’s issues” to get a flavor of what she has learned about the Va while she was in their care and her run for Congress.

Our wounded warriors, our heroes, should not have to fight for our country, then fight for their life and still have to fight for their benefits!

Oldtimer